Friday, 21 July 2017

Apple's Electric Car Dream Can Be Back Powered By CATL - Biggest China's Lithium Battery Maker.




Apple's electric car project "Titan" is so secret that Tim Cook must be not believing in it officially himself anymore. We have another round of rumours reported by ElecTrek about the groundbreaking Electric iCar from Apple. Time is changing everything. Electric cars are coming faster than a lot of people are anticipating. Now it will be more crucial for the Apple's dream about $1 Trillion dollar market cap than for our dream that all cars will be electric. 

Tesla Model 3 is here, dozens of new models of electric cars are coming in the next 3 years and Bloomberg is reporting about more than 100 new models of electric cars by 2022. There are more than 70 models of electric cars on sale in China already and somebody is getting seriously excited about lithium these days. Chinese companies will bring total disruption to the cost structure of lithium batteries and there are already reports about Audi buying its batteries at $114 per kWh from China. The time to launch electric cars for the mass market could not be better and Apple still can take this market by storm.





Energy rEVolution: Ganfeng Lithium Hits All Time High, Up Over 117% In A Year - The Lithium M&A Heatwave To Follow.





Ganfeng Lithium hits all time high and up over 117% from the year ago. The sales are booming and there is a total disconnect in the raw material supply lines and the exponential growth in the lithium battery capacity coming online. The heat wave of M&A in lithium sector will be one of the most spectacular in the all commodity space. Read more.
"The heat wave of Lithium M&A this summer has officially arrived. Lithium race now enters the ludicrous mode and SQM moves into the JV in Western Australia in the hard rock mining! SQM is the world's top lithium brine producer, but recent changes in Chile have brought some new challenges for the company. This move is diversifying SQM geographically and will allow finally increase the share of revenues in its fertilizers and chemicals stream towards lithium products. SQM is already engaged in JV with Lithium Americas and Ganfeng Lithium in the lithium brine project in Argentina. 
SQM is itself a target of constant dating from Chinese companies including Ganfeng Lithium and Tianqi. We have just recently discussed the advance from GSR, another Chinese company. Now we can better understand the announcement by Ganfeng Lithium in June when SQM stopped to ship concentrated brine from Chile to China. Please note the announcement that SQM and Kidman have agreed to develop a proposed downstream lithium refinery operation to produce lithium carbonate and hydroxide in WA. All lithium majors are entering into the direct competition now and building their own vertically integrated lithium businesses when the security of lithium supply is everything. This process will drive M&A and consolidation in our industry in this Lithium 2.0 stage."







ElecTrek:


"Last year, Apple was rumored to be working on an autonomous all-electric car codenamed ‘Project Titan’. The company later confirmed development work on an autonomous driving platform and CEO Tim Cook even referred to it as “a core technology” for the company, but it showed signs of giving up on developing an actual car.
But now Apple is reportedly working on electric car batteries with China’s biggest battery maker.

Today, China’s Yicai Global reported that CATL, China’s largest automotive battery maker, is working with Apple on a confidential project:
“The Cupertino-based tech titan is working with Contemporary Amperex Technology Ltd. (CATL), a battery manufacturer in China’s Fujian province, on a scheme based on a confidentiality agreement. The parties are working together in the field of batteries, sources involved with the cooperation said.”
Neither Apple or CATL commented on the report.
If true, it would mean that Apple’s Project Titan could be working more toward a fully electric car and not just a self-driving system that can be integrated into other vehicles, like what Alphabet’s Waymo is doing with other automakers.
Apple partnering with CATL would be a significant development for the project since battery production is often seen as a bottleneck in the electric vehicle industry and that’s a problem the company is trying to solve.
CATL tripled its lithium-ion battery production last year and plans to reach 50 GWh by 2020, which would make it the second biggest li-ion battery producer in the world behind Tesla/Panasonic if they all manage to deliver on their production goals.
If Apple wants to get into electric cars in a big way, CATL is among only a handful of potential partners that can make it happen on the battery front. Apple is already a big battery consumer due to its iPhones and Macbooks, but electric cars are on a completely different scale. One Tesla Model S represents roughly the same battery demand as 4,000 iPhones.
CATL’s batteries, which are primarily using LiFePo and NCM chemistries in prismatic cell formats, have been mostly going to electric bus production, but they recently signed a supply contract with SAAB successor National Electric Vehicle Sweden (NEVS) in order to enable the production of hundreds of thousands of electric cars per year.
What do you think? Is Apple getting into the car business? Let us know in the comment section below."



Energy rEVolution: Ganfeng Lithium Hits All Time High, Up Over 117% In A Year - The Lithium M&A Heatwave To Follow.




Ganfeng Lithium hits all time high and up over 117% from the year ago. The sales are booming and there is a total disconnect in the raw material supply lines and the exponential growth in the lithium battery capacity coming online. The heat wave of M&A in lithium sector will be one of the most spectacular in the all commodity space.
"The heat wave of Lithium M&A this summer has officially arrived. Lithium race now enters the ludicrous mode and SQM moves into the JV in Western Australia in the hard rock mining! SQM is the world's top lithium brine producer, but recent changes in Chile have brought some new challenges for the company. This move is diversifying SQM geographically and will allow finally increase the share of revenues in its fertilizers and chemicals stream towards lithium products. SQM is already engaged in JV with Lithium Americas and Ganfeng Lithium in the lithium brine project in Argentina. 
SQM is itself a target of constant dating from Chinese companies including Ganfeng Lithium and Tianqi. We have just recently discussed the advance from GSR, another Chinese company. Now we can better understand the announcement by Ganfeng Lithium in June when SQM stopped to ship concentrated brine from Chile to China. Please note the announcement that SQM and Kidman have agreed to develop a proposed downstream lithium refinery operation to produce lithium carbonate and hydroxide in WA. All lithium majors are entering into the direct competition now and building their own vertically integrated lithium businesses when the security of lithium supply is everything. This process will drive M&A and consolidation in our industry in this Lithium 2.0 stage."






World Bank: "There Could Be A More Than 1,000 Per Cent Increase In Lithium Demand For Batteries".






And now World Bank is joining the Lithium Race with its own prediction of more than 1,000 % increase in demand for lithium from batteries. Lithium is at the very heart of this Energy rEVolution and this story is finally making its way into the headlines. M&A wave in lithium space has only started this year. 







Lithium Race Ludicrous Mode: Chile’s SQM To Acquire 50% Stake In Mt Holland Lithium Project In Western Australia.





The heat wave of Lithium M&A this summer has officially arrived. Lithium race now enters the ludicrous mode and SQM moves into the JV in Western Australia in the hard rock mining! SQM is the world's top lithium brine producer, but recent changes in Chile have brought some new challenges for the company. This move is diversifying SQM geographically and will allow finally increase the share of revenues in its fertilizers and chemicals stream towards lithium products. SQM is already engaged in JV with Lithium Americas and Ganfeng Lithium in the lithium brine project in Argentina.

SQM is itself a target of constant dating from Chinese companies including Ganfeng Lithium and Tianqi. We have just recently discussed the advance from GSR, another Chinese company. Now we can better understand the announcement by Ganfeng Lithium in June when SQM stopped to ship concentrated brine from Chile to China. Please note the announcement that SQM and Kidman have agreed to develop a proposed downstream lithium refinery operation to produce lithium carbonate and hydroxide in WA. All lithium majors are entering into the direct competition now and building their own vertically integrated lithium businesses when the security of lithium supply is everything. This process will drive M&A and consolidation in our industry in this Lithium 2.0 stage.






Bloomberg: The Electric Car Revolution Is Accelerating - Production Of Lithium Will Increase More Than 100-fold.





And now Bloomberg is joining our discussion about critical secure lithium supply to feed this Energy rEVolution and the coming tide of electric cars. The total disconnect between the exponential growth of sales of electric cars and available secure lithium supply is making its way into the mainstream investment media.

For us here, it will not be a secret that BNEF is totally right to point out the main driving force of this coming Electric rEVolution - cheap lithium batteries change everything. The surprise is coming with the news from Audi - they are claiming to be able to purchase lithium batteries for the upcoming electric cars at $114 per KWh from China already! And I will not be surprised by it at all. With all that build up in lithium batteries capacity, the new coming players will bid for business now betting on mass volume production to bring the cost of lithium batteries fast down. We are entering the Solar Panels stage of total industry cost structure disruption for Lithium Batteries with China investing billions to corner this market as well.




Security of lithium supply is at the very base of this state-level investment game by China. In the end, you cannot participate in billions of dollars in available government funding if you cannot secure the supply of lithium raw materials to feed all this pyramid. Disruption of $12 Trillion dollars industries ($4 Trillion Transportation and $8 Trillion Energy and Utilities) is based on the $2 Billion dollars market by sales of lithium raw materials. And the price of that critical commodity is just under 2% of total cost of a lithium battery. We will have the very fast increase in lithium prices and the wave of M&A in our very small sector will be one of the most impressive ones, when billions will be chasing all available secure lithium supply trying to buy the time they have lost alreadyRead more.

Tuesday, 18 July 2017

World Bank: "There Could Be A More Than 1,000 Per Cent Increase In Lithium Demand For Batteries".





And now World Bank is joining the Lithium Race with its own prediction of more than 1,000 % increase in demand for lithium from batteries. Lithium is at the very heart of this Energy rEVolution and this story is finally making its way into the headlines. M&A wave in lithium space has only started this year. 







Lithium Race Ludicrous Mode: Chile’s SQM To Acquire 50% Stake In Mt Holland Lithium Project In Western Australia.





The heat wave of Lithium M&A this summer has officially arrived. Lithium race now enters the ludicrous mode and SQM moves into the JV in Western Australia in the hard rock mining! SQM is the world's top lithium brine producer, but recent changes in Chile have brought some new challenges for the company. This move is diversifying SQM geographically and will allow finally increase the share of revenues in its fertilizers and chemicals stream towards lithium products. SQM is already engaged in JV with Lithium Americas and Ganfeng Lithium in the lithium brine project in Argentina.

SQM is itself a target of constant dating from Chinese companies including Ganfeng Lithium and Tianqi. We have just recently discussed the advance from GSR, another Chinese company. Now we can better understand the announcement by Ganfeng Lithium in June when SQM stopped to ship concentrated brine from Chile to China. Please note the announcement that SQM and Kidman have agreed to develop a proposed downstream lithium refinery operation to produce lithium carbonate and hydroxide in WA. All lithium majors are entering into the direct competition now and building their own vertically integrated lithium businesses when the security of lithium supply is everything. This process will drive M&A and consolidation in our industry in this Lithium 2.0 stage.






Bloomberg: The Electric Car Revolution Is Accelerating - Production Of Lithium Will Increase More Than 100-fold.





And now Bloomberg is joining our discussion about critical secure lithium supply to feed this Energy rEVolution and the coming tide of electric cars. The total disconnect between the exponential growth of sales of electric cars and available secure lithium supply is making its way into the mainstream investment media.

For us here, it will not be a secret that BNEF is totally right to point out the main driving force of this coming Electric rEVolution - cheap lithium batteries change everything. The surprise is coming with the news from Audi - they are claiming to be able to purchase lithium batteries for the upcoming electric cars at $114 per KWh from China already! And I will not be surprised by it at all. With all that build up in lithium batteries capacity, the new coming players will bid for business now betting on mass volume production to bring the cost of lithium batteries fast down. We are entering the Solar Panels stage of total industry cost structure disruption for Lithium Batteries with China investing billions to corner this market as well.




Security of lithium supply is at the very base of this state-level investment game by China. In the end, you cannot participate in billions of dollars in available government funding if you cannot secure the supply of lithium raw materials to feed all this pyramid. Disruption of $12 Trillion dollars industries ($4 Trillion Transportation and $8 Trillion Energy and Utilities) is based on the $2 Billion dollars market by sales of lithium raw materials. And the price of that critical commodity is just under 2% of total cost of a lithium battery. We will have the very fast increase in lithium prices and the wave of M&A in our very small sector will be one of the most impressive ones, when billions will be chasing all available secure lithium supply trying to buy the time they have lost alreadyRead more.



Sunday, 16 July 2017

DIEselGate Hits Mercedes And ING Bank Predicts That Only Electric Passenger Cars Will Be Sold In Europe From 2035 Onwards.




DIEselGate hits Mercedes brand with Daimler being accused of selling more than a million cars with excess emissions, is it still a secret that there are no such things as "Clean DIEsel" and "Clean Coal"? Maybe it is still not clear for the politicians who are waiting to ban all DIEsel cars from our streets, but consumers and big banks are waking up. Consumers cannot sell its used DIEsel cars anymore without very lofty discounts and money managers are looking for the stranded assets and disruption at the core of the auto industry.





ING Bank joins the Electric rEVolution with its prediction that only electric cars will be sold in Europe from 2035 onwards. OPEC has increased 500% its own forecast for the fleet of electric cars by 2040 from 46 million estimated in 2015 to over 266 million forecasted in 2016 and IEA is calling for 600 million EVs needed by 2040 just to keep temperature increase below 2%. It is possible and The Switch is happening right now with millions of people testing electric cars worldwide





Cheaper and better electric cars are coming and Tesla Model 3 will be the best advertisement of EV Technology on our streets. Lithium industry is still living in its own bubble with major investment houses calculating 5% - 10% - 15% penetration rates for electric cars. What will happen if all cars will be electric and much faster than a lot of people think? We are getting there in the ludicrous mode now. The recent wave of M&A in the lithium sectors is just a warm up before the real tide will be coming on.












"The cost of lithium batteries is going down very fast and I believe that fully electric cars will rule the world very soon. Tesla Model 3 with 65 kWh lithium battery provides over 200 miles of range and will become the standard in the industry with its mass volume production from this July. There is around 60 kg of LCE (Lithium Carbonate Equivalent) in one Tesla Model 3 battery. We will need 36 Million Tonnes of LCE to be produced by 2040 to put this IEA plan into life. 

To put it into perspective, the total lithium production last year was around 200,000 T of LCE. Now you can better understand why there is the real cut throat competition for the security of lithium supply which is still hidden from the most of the people by the clouds of toxic cancer hazard fumes emitted by all DIEsel cars on our roads. ICE (Internal Combustion Engines) are on the way out, all cars will be electric very soon and we are facing the total disconnect between the coming demand for lithium and the available supply. Read more."




ING:

Electric cars will take over, threatening European car industry

Electric cars are on a breakthrough, and even faster than we thought. The major reservations people still have – charging infrastructure, range anxiety and pricing – will be overcome within the next seven years, according to the Breakthrough of electric vehicle threatens European car industry report by ING’s senior economists Max Erich and Jurjen Witteveen.


Car market competition

Only electric passenger cars will be sold from 2035 onwards, according to the research estimation. This has a drastic impact on the European car market. Currently, European car manufacturers are at the forefront of internal combustion engines (25% market share), but their share in lithium-ion production used in electric cars is only 3%. Therefore, it is likely that both Asia and North-America will get a bigger foothold in the European car market due to their great supply of resources."


Friday, 14 July 2017

TNR Gold: McEwen Mining Moves Giant Los Azules Copper Forward With Exploration And New PEA Study.




McEwen Mining 2017 AGM presentation provides more information on the very impressive advance of Los Azules copper project in Argentina. TNR Gold holds Royalty on Los Azules copper with McEwen Mining.






Please Note that TNR Gold Qualified Person - as it is defined by NI 43-101, was NOT able to Verify and Confirm Any Provided Information by The Third Parties; you must NOT rely in any sense on any of this information in order to make any Resource or Value Calculation, or attribute any particular Value or Price Target to any Discussed Securities.




TNR, through its lead generator business model, has been successful in generating high quality exploration projects in the Americas and Europe. With the Company’s expertise, resources and industry network, it identified the potential of the Los Azules copper project in Argentina and now holds a 0.36% NSR Royalty on the prospect.
At its core, TNR provides significant exposure to gold and copper through its holdings in Alaska (the Shotgun gold porphyry project) and Argentina, and is committed to continued generation of in-demand projects, while diversifying its markets and building shareholder value.
TNR is a major shareholder of International Lithium Corp. (TSXV:ILC) (“ILC”), a green energy metals company that was created through the spinout of TNR’s energy metals portfolio in 2011.  ILC holds interests in lithium projects in Argentina, Ireland and Canada. TNR continues to hold approximately 15% of the outstanding shares of ILC.
TNR retains a 1.8% NSR Royalty on ILC’s Mariana lithium property in Argentina. ILC maintains a right to repurchase 1.0% of the NSR on the Mariana property. The Company would receive $900,000 on exercise of the repurchase right. The project is being advanced in a joint venture between ILC and Ganfeng Lithium International Co. Ltd., a leading lithium product manufacturer seeking to secure its raw materials supply.

All slides below are from McEwen Mining 2017 AGM Presentation

Please read legal disclaimer. There is no investment advice on this blog. Always consult a qualified financial adviser before any investment decisions. DYOR.











Please Note that TNR Gold Qualified Person - as it is defined by NI 43-101, was NOT able to Verify and Confirm Any Provided Information by The Third Parties; you must NOT rely in any sense on any of this information in order to make any Resource or Value Calculation, or attribute any particular Value or Price Target to any Discussed Securities.

Wednesday, 12 July 2017

Lithium Race Ludicrous Mode: Chile’s SQM To Acquire 50% Stake In Mt Holland Lithium Project In Western Australia.




The heat wave of Lithium M&A this summer has officially arrived. Lithium race now enters the ludicrous mode and SQM moves into the JV in Western Australia in the hard rock mining! SQM is the world's top lithium brine producer, but recent changes in Chile have brought some new challenges for the company. This move is diversifying SQM geographically and will allow finally increase the share of revenues in its fertilisers and chemicals stream towards lithium products. SQM is already engaged in JV with Lithium Americas and Ganfeng Lithium in the lithium brine project in Argentina.

SQM is itself a target of constant dating from Chinese companies including Ganfeng Lithium and Tianqi. We have just recently discussed the advance from GSR, another Chinese company. Now we can better understand the announcement by Ganfeng Lithium in June when SQM stopped to ship concentrated brine from Chile to China. Please note the announcement that SQM and Kidman have agreed to develop a proposed downstream lithium refinery operation to produce lithium carbonate and hydroxide in WA. All lithium majors are entering into the direct competition now and building their own vertically integrated lithium businesses when the security of lithium supply is everything. This process will drive M&A and consolidation in our industry in this Lithium 2.0 stage.






Bloomberg: The Electric Car Revolution Is Accelerating - Production Of Lithium Will Increase More Than 100-fold.





And now Bloomberg is joining our discussion about critical secure lithium supply to feed this Energy rEVolution and the coming tide of electric cars. The total disconnect between the exponential growth of sales of electric cars and available secure lithium supply is making its way into the mainstream investment media.

For us here, it will not be a secret that BNEF is totally right to point out the main driving force of this coming Electric rEVolution - cheap lithium batteries change everything. The surprise is coming with the news from Audi - they are claiming to be able to purchase lithium batteries for the upcoming electric cars at $114 per KWh from China already! And I will not be surprised by it at all. With all that build up in lithium batteries capacity, the new coming players will bid for business now betting on mass volume production to bring the cost of lithium batteries fast down. We are entering the Solar Panels stage of total industry cost structure disruption for Lithium Batteries with China investing billions to corner this market as well.




Security of lithium supply is at the very base of this state-level investment game by China. In the end, you cannot participate in billions of dollars in available government funding if you cannot secure the supply of lithium raw materials to feed all this pyramid. Disruption of $12 Trillion dollars industries ($4 Trillion Transportation and $8 Trillion Energy and Utilities) is based on the $2 Billion dollars market by sales of lithium raw materials. And the price of that critical commodity is just under 2% of total cost of a lithium battery. We will have the very fast increase in lithium prices and the wave of M&A in our very small sector will be one of the most impressive ones, when billions will be chasing all available secure lithium supply trying to buy the time they have lost already. Read more.



Mining-Technology.com:

Chile’s SQM to acquire 50% stake in Mt Holland lithium project in WA

Sociedad Química y Minera de Chile has signed a $110m joint venture (JV) agreement to acquire a 50% interest in Kidman Resources’ Mt Holland lithium project in Western Australia (WA). 
Following completion of the deal, Mt Holland project will be shared by the companies, having previously been wholly owned by Kidman Resources. 
Under the agreement, SQM will make an initial cash payment of $30m to Kidman and contribute $80m to fund the development costs of the project in exchange for the 50% stake.
Furthermore, the companies have agreed to develop a proposed downstream lithium refinery operation to produce lithium carbonate / hydroxide in WA.
"It contains a mineral resource of 128 million tonnes at 1.44% Li2O for 1.84 million tonnes of lithium oxide."

The refinery is expected to be underpinned by the Earl Grey lithium deposit at Mt Holland. It contains a mineral resource of 128 million tonnes at 1.44% Li2O for 1.84 million tonnes of lithium oxide.
Funding from SQM will be used for the completion of feasibility studies relating to Mt Holland lithium project, alongside the mine development phase and processing plant on-site. 
Funds will also be directed towards the mine's construction phase, processing plant and associated infrastructure, as well as funding the refinery plant's design and study phase.  
The agreement will give exclusive rights to the JV to explore and mine for lithium in the project area, while Kidman will retain the exclusive right to exploit gold. 

Tuesday, 11 July 2017

InvestorIntel: Lithium Producers Believe That The Automotive Market Has Reached The Tipping Point.




International Energy Agency: In Order To Limit Temperature Increase Below 2º C The Number Of Electric Cars Needs To Reach 600 Million By 2040.





"The cost of lithium batteries is going down very fast and I believe that fully electric cars will rule the world very soon. Tesla Model 3 with 65 kWh lithium battery provides over 200 miles of range and will become the standard in the industry with its mass volume production from this July. There is around 60 kg of LCE (Lithium Carbonate Equivalent) in one Tesla Model 3 battery. We will need 36 Million Tonnes of LCE to be produced by 2040 to put this IEA plan into life. 

To put it into perspective, the total lithium production last year was around 200,000 T of LCE. Now you can better understand why there is the real cut throat competition for the security of lithium supply which is still hidden from the most of the people by the clouds of toxic cancer hazard fumes emitted by all DIEsel cars on our roads. ICE (Internal Combustion Engines) are on the way out, all cars will be electric very soon and we are facing the total disconnect between the coming demand for lithium and the available supply. Read more."






Bloomberg: In just eight years, electric cars will be as cheap as gasoline vehicles, pushing the global fleet to 530 million vehicles by 2040 

InvestorIntel:

Lithium producers believe that the automotive market has reached the tipping point




 | JULY 09, 2017 | 
International Lithium Corp. (TSXV: ILC) is capitalizing on lithium demand turning into lithium anxiety both for investors and lithium battery manufacturers looking to lock in supply chain verticals.
Recently, International Lithium released data from its main project in Argentina, the Mariana lithium brine project, with its indicated resource containing an estimated 1,248,000 tonnes of lithium carbonate equivalent (LCE), previously reported with at a 60% recovery rate to be 747,000 tonnes LCE which is now calculated as 749,000 tonnes of LCE. Inferred resource contains an estimated 618,000 tonnes of LCE.
Lithium producers believe that the automotive market has reached the tipping point, that will lead to the mass electrification of transportation. Electric Cars still represent only 0.2% of all cars in the world. Worldwide sales of electric cars have reached 1.1% of total auto sales in 2016. 
The drive for electric cars is pushing demand for lithium salts as the mainstay of lithium ion batteries. When electric vehicles first appeared in the marketplace, range anxiety was a main factor affecting market uptake. But Tesla’s Model 3 with 65 kWh lithium battery provides over 200 miles of range and will become the standard in the industry with its mass volume production from this July.
Are we waiving our goodbyes to range anxiety and are we getting into the unchartered territory of lithium supply anxiety?
According to the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) “Global EV Outlook 2017” past data suggests significant growth in sales of electric cars.
Recent sector performance is indicative. The global electric car stock surpassed 2 million vehicles in 2016 after crossing the 1 million threshold in 2015, prompting new analyses on the lithium supply chain.
According to the IEA, in order to limit the increase of temperature below 2º C the number of electric cars needs to reach 600 million by 2040.
Kirill Klip, Executive Chairman, President and CEO of International Lithium Corp., “There is around 60 kg of LCE in one Tesla Model 3 battery. We will need 36 Million Tonnes of LCE to be produced by 2040 to support 600 million electric vehicles on the road by 2040.”
But this is about more than lithium mining and purification. I expect that this may cause a dramatic shift in the global economy. In the hallways of academia, scholars claim that the automotive industry has been central to the emergence of the current economic paradigm. The mass production of the Model T by Henry Ford, opened up the world’s economy. Even nowadays, new car sales are an indicator of economic growth because of the importance of the automotive industry to the gross domestic product (GDP).
There is a direct correlation between the size of a country’s GDP, and its automotive industry. GDP accounts for the consumption, investments, net exports, and government spending during a given time period. In economics terms, it is possible that lithium will be a central tenet to a shifting paradigm in favor the electrification of transportation the same way gasoline supported the emergence of the automotive industry in the early 1990s."